string htmlspecialchars(string $string[, int $flags = ENT_COMPAT | ENT_HTML401, string $encoding = ini_get("default_charset"), bool $double_encode = true])
Certain characters have special significance in HTML, and should be represented by HTML entities if they are to preserve their meanings. This function returns a string with these conversions made. If you require all input substrings that have associated named entities to be translated, use htmlentities() instead.
If the input string passed to this function and the final document share the same character set, this function is sufficient to prepare input for inclusion in most contexts of an HTML document. If, however, the input can represent characters that are not coded in the final document character set and you wish to retain those characters (as numeric or named entities), both this function and htmlentities() (which only encodes substrings that have named entity equivalents) may be insufficient. You may have to use mb_encode_numericentity() instead.
|" (double quote)||", unless |
|' (single quote)|| ' (for |
|< (less than)||<|
|> (greater than)||>|
The converted string.
If the input
string contains an invalid code unit sequence within the given
encoding an empty string will be returned, unless either the
ENT_SUBSTITUTE flags are set.
- string $string: The string being converted.
- int $flags [ = ENT_COMPAT | ENT_HTML401]: A bitmask of one or more of the following flags, which specify how to handle quotes, invalid code unit sequences and the used document type. The default is ENT_COMPAT | ENT_HTML401.
Constant Name Description
Will convert double-quotes and leave single-quotes alone.
Will convert both double and single quotes.
Will leave both double and single quotes unconverted.
Silently discard invalid code unit sequences instead of returning an empty string. Using this flag is discouraged as it » may have security implications.
Replace invalid code unit sequences with a Unicode Replacement Character U+FFFD (UTF-8) or � (otherwise) instead of returning an empty string.
Replace invalid code points for the given document type with a Unicode Replacement Character U+FFFD (UTF-8) or � (otherwise) instead of leaving them as is. This may be useful, for instance, to ensure the well-formedness of XML documents with embedded external content.
Handle code as HTML 4.01.
Handle code as XML 1.
Handle code as XHTML.
Handle code as HTML 5.
- string $encoding [ = ini_get("default_charset")]: An optional argument defining the encoding used when converting characters.
If omitted, the default value of the
encodingvaries depending on the PHP version in use. In PHP 5.6 and later, the default_charset configuration option is used as the default value. PHP 5.4 and 5.5 will use UTF-8 as the default. Earlier versions of PHP use ISO-8859-1.
Although this argument is technically optional, you are highly encouraged to specify the correct value for your code if you are using PHP 5.5 or earlier, or if your default_charset configuration option may be set incorrectly for the given input.
For the purposes of this function, the encodings ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-15, UTF-8, cp866, cp1251, cp1252, and KOI8-R are effectively equivalent, provided the
stringitself is valid for the encoding, as the characters affected by htmlspecialchars() occupy the same positions in all of these encodings.
The following character sets are supported:
Charset Aliases Description ISO-8859-1 ISO8859-1 Western European, Latin-1. ISO-8859-5 ISO8859-5 Little used cyrillic charset (Latin/Cyrillic). ISO-8859-15 ISO8859-15 Western European, Latin-9. Adds the Euro sign, French and Finnish letters missing in Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1). UTF-8 ASCII compatible multi-byte 8-bit Unicode. cp866 ibm866, 866 DOS-specific Cyrillic charset. cp1251 Windows-1251, win-1251, 1251 Windows-specific Cyrillic charset. cp1252 Windows-1252, 1252 Windows specific charset for Western European. KOI8-R koi8-ru, koi8r Russian. BIG5 950 Traditional Chinese, mainly used in Taiwan. GB2312 936 Simplified Chinese, national standard character set. BIG5-HKSCS Big5 with Hong Kong extensions, Traditional Chinese. Shift_JIS SJIS, SJIS-win, cp932, 932 Japanese EUC-JP EUCJP, eucJP-win Japanese MacRoman Charset that was used by Mac OS. '' An empty string activates detection from script encoding (Zend multibyte), default_charset and current locale (see nl_langinfo() and setlocale()), in this order. Not recommended.
Note: Any other character sets are not recognized. The default encoding will be used instead and a warning will be emitted.
- bool $double_encode [ = true]: When
double_encodeis turned off PHP will not encode existing html entities, the default is to convert everything.
Example #1 htmlspecialchars() example
$new = htmlspecialchars("<a href='test'>Test</a>", ENT_QUOTES);
echo $new; // <a href='test'>Test</a>
- Any other character sets are not recognized. The default encoding will be used instead and a warning will be emitted.
- Note that this function does not translate anything beyond what is listed above. For full entity translation, see htmlentities().
|5.6.0||The default value for the |
|5.4.0||The default value for the |
|5.4.0||The constants |
|5.3.0||The constant |